Because scale insects are difficult to kill, one or two follow-up applications should be made after the first one. We teach, learn, lead and serve, connecting people with the University of Wisconsin, and engaging with them in transforming lives and communities. Imidacloprid (Bayer Advanced Garden Tree & Shrub Insect Control Concentrate) is applied as a drench around the root zone of infested plants. Adults are protected from these insecticides by their scale coverings, and only young crawlers can be killed with spray treatments. At this stage, they are called crawlers, and they are very tiny. Systemic insecticides such as imidacloprid can also be used for control. When they first hatch out of their eggs, scale insects are mobile. Spray insecticides containing carbaryl, cyfluthrin, horticultural oil, insecticidal soap, malathion, or permethrin can be used for control of the crawler stage of Euonymus scale. Symptoms and Effects: Euonymus scales feed on plant sap. Oil sprays help speed the process. Follow label directions carefully. An EEO/AA employer, University of Wisconsin-Madison Division of Extension provides equal opportunities in employment and programming, including Title VI, Title IX, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act requirements. Imidacloprid-containing insecticides are used as soil drenches and should be applied in the fall. Systemic insecticides are another option for controlling scale. Horticultural oils (also called supreme, superior or summer oils) work very well to control armored scales, such as the euonymus scale, on ornamentals by penetrating their waxy covers and smothering them. If the insects are on the underside of the leaves and the oil is only applied to the upper surface, it will have no effect on them. Euonymus scale, on the other hand, attacks euonymus and resembles tea scale. Once they settle down to feed and pierce the plant’s tissue with their needle-like mouthparts, they never move again and become firmly attached to a leaf or stem. Feeding damage first appears as yellow spots on leaves. You may find them feeding on trees, shrubs and even on indoor plants. These fungi feed on the honeydew and do not attack or directly damage the plant, but the appearance of sooty mold is often the gardener’s first noticeable sign of trouble. Finally, two parasitic wasps and two predatory beetles have been introduced into the US to help control Euonymus scale. Even more common is the growth of fungal organisms that produce an unattractive black coating on the leaves called sooty mold. Adults are protected from these insecticides by their scale coverings, and only young crawlers can be killed with spray treatments. Fern scale appears as white dashes on the fronds. Scale (or armored scale) describes a common family of insects that feed on various shrubs and trees. Eggs are protected under female scales and hatch in early June. Scale insects are one of the more common groups of insects that attack plants. Feedback, questions or accessibility issues: © 2020 The Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System. These insecticides contain oil in a form that will mix with water. This second generation matures, and the adults overwinter. Acephate, imidacloprid and dinotefuran are three commonly used systemic insecticides that are effective against scale. Properly applied, one application of an effective product may provide season-long control. There are many others. This rich food source does not go unnoticed. When the scale feed on the sap, they ingest the toxic insecticide and are killed. Ants, wasps and other insects may be attracted to the sweet honeydew. Many scales produce crawlers in the spring. Both suck on plant tissue, which can cause damage. When infestations are heavy, scales encrust leaves and branches, with feeding damage causing defoliation and branch dieback. Baton Rouge, LA 70803 This provides a means of scale control without reliance on sprays. Scale insects come in many types, but here are a few of the most common. The immature stages of the insect are called nymphs and an early mobile nymph stage is called the crawler stage. The lady beetle Cybocephalus nipponicus can be purchased by homeowners and released to aid in control. That’s one reason that the mild weather of spring is an excellent time to use them. A soil-applied systemic insecticidea chemical compound designed to kill insects, can be either contact (kills on direct contact with the insecticide) or systemic (absorbed within a tree to kill insects when they try to feed on it), is effective for season long control of euonymous scale if applied in the spring. Systemic insecticides provide an option for control when temperatures limit the use of an oil spray or when drenching around the base of the plant is more practical. Brand names of spray oils include Volck (use only during cool weather), All Seasons and Year-Round. Acephate, imidacloprid and dinotefuran are three commonly used systemic insecticides that are effective against scale. Soil Applied Systemic Insecticides: Although soil treatments with common products containing imidacloprid will control some tree and shrub pests, such as soft scales, aphids and white flies, these products do little to control armored scales. The plant absorbs the insecticide into its tissue, and it gets into the plant’s circulatory system and into the sap. However, it may need to be applied several weeks before crawlers are active for best results. These insecticides are sprayed onto the plant or applied to its roots. When mixed and sprayed onto an infested plant, the oil coats the scale insects and clogs their breathing pores. Life Cycle: Euonymus scale has two generations per year in Wisconsin. Once the crawlers have settled down to feed, they create their protective covering and contact insecticides are largely ineffective. Euonymus scale males are smaller than females, white and elongated. The sooty mold will not quickly disappear when the scale has been controlled, but as the food supply is exhausted the sooty mold will eventually weather off. Thank you for your question.Yes, Systemic Insect Control is effective on all types of scale including euonymus scale. The insects are suffocated rather than being killed by a toxic material. Cottony cushion scale. For proper control, it is critical to apply the oil spray over every surface of the plant. Photo by Dan Gill/LSU AgCenter, Tea scale. However, while these products reduce scale populations, they typically do not provide 100% control of Euonymus scale on woody plants. On magnolia trees, false oleander scale looks like small white bumps on the leaves, and magnolia scale appears as yellow waxy blobs about one-quarter to one-half inch across on the branches. Tea scale insects are about the size of a hyphen, appear slightly fuzzy and are white or brown. See Table 2 for examples of contact insecticides for scale crawler control. Always read and follow label directions carefully when using any pesticide. And sooty mold does not occur with some scales, such as tea scale. Systemic insecticides provide an option for control when temperatures limit the use of an oil spray or when drenching around the base of the plant is more practical. Control: Euonymus scale can be difficult to control. Be aware that other sucking insects, such as whitefly and aphids, also produce honeydew that can lead to sooty mold. Many gardeners don’t recognize there is a problem until the plant is heavily infested and damage has occurred. Photo by Dan Gill/LSU Photo by Dan Gill/LSU AgCenter, False oleander scale on magnolia. As scale insects feed on the sugary sap of a plant, they excrete some of the sugar as a liquid called honeydew. AgCenter, The LSU AgCenter and the LSU College of Agriculture, 101 Efferson Hall Oils are also effective against aphids, whiteflies, spider mites and the crawler stage of scales, yet they are less harmful than other insecticides to beneficial predatory insects. An added benefit of oil sprays is that they also help clean the unsightly sooty mold from the plant. In addition, this insect attacks privet, bittersweet and pachysandra. Horticultural oil sprays will kill the eggs, crawlers (immatures) and the adult scales. Nymphs are active over a period of a few weeks, and develop into adults after four to five weeks. Scales spread from plant to plant as tiny crawlers that have legs and can move around. When the scale insects feed on the sap, they ingest the toxic insecticide and are killed. Oil sprays are best used when the temperature is between 45 and 85 degrees, and they should only be applied to plants that are not in stress.
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