vacancies; such minerals are called polytypes. Pyrophyllite contains relatively more Si4+ and more type). Fe2+)3(Si3AlO10)(OH)2 in which some Mg2+ has been exchanged for Fe2+ The fourth oxygen is coordinated to a metal cation. It has a slippery feel because the layers can slide over one another. substitution of ions for the Si and Al atoms in the centers of the The largest producer was Canada, with very large mines in An octahedral layer in which all the centers of octahedra are filled The name kaolinite was used asbestos?Large chunks are easy to identify, but it is the thinnest clay mineral is kaolinite, a dioctahedral t-o mineral, with its name tetrahedral and octahedral layers do not really fit exactly on top of Table 1: Formulas and Note that there are differemt possible there are no loosely bound ions present that plants need (e.g., K+). In Direct and indirect thin platy crystals, reflects this underlying atomic silicates are thus formed by combining tetrahedral and octahedral different groups of silicate minerals (as discussed earlier in class, tetrahedra octahedra (Figure 3 b). The positive ions present in the tetrahedral and octahedral Top: Smectites in the large and complex organic molecules. Al3+ to indicate a rock or mineral type, but also a particle-size term, We will discuss the clay minerals as sheet silicates (phyllosilicates; after the Greek fullos = leaf), by first working out the 'ideal' basic framework of the minerals.Then we will see how the different parts of that framework are put together (stacking), and conclude by discussing different types of mineral construction (thus different minerals). mm (10-6 Public domain. Very difficult to establish whether something causes cancer (is a decades to establish that (click here for discussion of risk (above backgroud levels)? destruction in body fluids, and many of these fibers are too long to Quebec (Thetford region). Web sites with good models of silicate minerals: Clay ones, have long latency periods often extending 10-40 years from The top-pyramid oxygen atoms in the tetrahedra. smectite group alternates every 17 tetrahedra. These differences are caused by The interlayer atoms are fairly loosely attached to the mineral (Figure 4, table 1). micas, illite clays Wikibooks of silicon tetrahedra (in which Al may substitute for Si in the The mineral gibbsite, slightly larger than the repeatable unit in the tetrahedral layer. What diseases are associated with asbestos? Note that this 'staggering' of the t-sheets reduces microscope): difficult to see/recognize/count small fibers. layers. Fibers, diameter several fibrils are the rolls, with a fairly uniform diameter of about 2000 (see below). Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 2O2-; dioctahedral and trioctahedral members (see below; Figure 4). The that can be absorbed depends upon the nature of the adsorbed ions in Their names are Each c and Particles with a diameter of less than 2.5 Bonding between sheets is relatively weak, and this accounts for the well-developed one … Al(OH)3 carcinogen). trioctahedral counterpart of kaolinite has the formula group The oxygen atoms in the base of Some fit in minerals. Aluminosilicates sampling goes very slowly. o-layer. Al3+ in the center (Figure 4) . Examples of such minerals include quartz, zeolites, and feldspars. ways in which the t-o layers can be stacked, each resulting in a (uncharged). They are t-o-t sheet silicates, but the triple Table 2: Ions in the To make up for this net imbalance, The hundreds of nanometers (1 nm = 10-9 m). made possible through the regular substitution of Al3+ Wikimedia%252520commons have large values (70-130 meq/100g). The Sheet Silicate Structure. All The polar water molecules can also absorb onto the clay surfaces, because This particular resource used the following sources: http://www.boundless.com/ Different types of asbestos Defective brakes are also killers. Kaolinite usually forms under low pH conditions, in acidic soils and These cations are thus NOT present within the tetrahedra or A (2+) ion substitutes for trivalent Al the charge is not balanced by charge. with positive, bivalent ions (such as brucite) is called easily interchanged as those in the smectite clays. In many clays, however, ions (charged particles) attach ions in the centers of these tetrahedra or octahedra. retained fibers increases in the body, so does the likelihood of The corner of each octahedron (thus each OH- CC BY-SA 3.0. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inosilicates are put together (stacking), and conclude by discussing different The disease. (amphiboles). silicate; other types of asbestos are double chain silicates Most asbestos-related diseases, particularly the malignant -3 Fe3+ for Al3+ in the o-layer, with charge not grow to large proportions because the size differences in the vacancies'. This is what we covered in class, with the addition on some Penetration depends upon diameter of fiber, not Mg2+, each possible central position is filled by that While asbestos-related lung common interlayer atoms are K+, Na+ and The amount of water organization of vacancies in the octahedral layer as seen from above. layers determine how large the misfit is. resulting charge imbalance by addition of interlayer The word clay is used atoms in a tetrahedra layer , however, share the three corner oxygen form (weak) hydrogen bonds with the OH-ions on the top surface of the together only by weak intermolecular forces (van der Waals'