At the same time, the nature of the sources is not such as to inspire confidence that we possess historically certain knowledge about the Prophet’s life that is as detailed as many earlier scholars tended to assume. The Building of the First Mosque However, this work is extant only in later reworkings and abridgements, of which the best known is ʿAbd al-Malik ibn Hishām’s (died 833–834) Sīrat Muḥammad rasūl Allāh (“Life of Muhammad, the Messenger of God”). Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Thus, statements of the sort that on March 21 of the year 625, Meccan forces entered the oasis of Medina are inherently problematic. As mentioned in this Quranic verse, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was sent by Allah (SWT) to guide humanity on The Straight Path. It highlights the Prophet’s unwavering dedication to his mission in the midst of growing hostility towards the early converts to Islam in Mecca. The Qurʾān provides very few concrete details regarding Muhammad’s life. He concluded a truce with Mecca in 628 but later forced it to submit. These are sometimes linked with place-names, such as the passing reference to a victory at a place called Badr at 3:123. Save 50% off a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Muhammad, in full Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim, (born c. 570, Mecca, Arabia [now in Saudi Arabia]—died June 8, 632, Medina), the founder of Islam and the proclaimer of the Qurʾān. An important collector of such early traditions was ʿUrwah ibn al-Zubayr, a relative of ʿĀʾishah who was probably born in 643–644 and who is plausibly viewed as having had firsthand access to former companions of the Prophet. According to Islamic tradition, his father died before Muhammad was born, and his mother died when he was a young child. Biography according to the Islamic tradition, Status in the Qurʾān and in post-Qurʾānic Islam, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Muhammad, JewishEncyclopedia.com - Biography of Mohammed, Muhammad - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Muhammad - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). In 622 he established the nascent Muslim community in Medina. This means he was a political figurehead searching for power and right to do what he wants. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? By carefully comparing accounts, scholars have identified common elements that were in circulation by the late 7th century, and some rudimentary details are confirmed by non-Islamic sources (e.g., a Syriac chronicle and an Armenian history) dating to the first few decades after his traditional death date. Especially the customary chronological framework for Muhammad’s life appears to have been worked out by later transmitters and collectors such as Ibn Isḥāq, rather than being traceable to the earliest layer of Islamic traditions about Muhammad. Those reports are not consistent, however, and some include miraculous elements or stories obviously adapted from the Bible. In this perspective, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) established a strong state in Medina on the basis of peace, solidarity, and harmony between the Muslims, Jews, Christians, disbelievers, as well as a group of hypocrites. However, the text provides no dates for any of the historical events it alludes to, and almost none of the Qurʾānic messenger’s contemporaries are mentioned by name (a rare exception is at 33:37). Moreover, some of the narratives in question are patently adaptations of biblical motifs designed to present Muhammad as equal or superior to earlier prophetic figures such as Moses and Jesus. Black Friday Sale! Updates? Tradition holds that when Muhammad had his first vision, he fled from the cave in terror. He had four daughters and at least two sons (both of whom died as infants) with Khadījah and probably another son (who also died young) by a later wife or concubine, Māriyah. Peters in “Muhammad and the Origins of Islam.” Hence, even if one accepts that the Qurʾānic corpus authentically documents the preaching of Muhammad, taken by itself it simply does not provide sufficient information for even a concise biographical sketch. Certain tensions with the Islamic narrative of the Prophet’s life remain, however. The story of the Prophet Muhammad’s pbuh escape from Mecca’ to Medina is story of faith and inspiration recanted to Muslims the world over. 1 Hijra to Medina 1.1 Relationship with followers of Abrahamic religions 2 Beginnings of armed conflict 3 Conflict with Mecca 4 The rousing of the nomads 5 Siege of Medina 6 Truce of Hudaybiyya 7 Conquest of Mecca 8 Conquest of Arabia 9 The Farewell Pilgrimage 10 Death … The following section will nonetheless provide a concise digest mainly of Ibn Isḥāq’s version of the life of the Prophet. At least to historians who are reluctant to admit reports of divine intervention, the problem is reinforced by the miraculous elements of some of the material included in Ibn Isḥāq’s work. The principle of aniconism (opposition to the use of icons or religious idols) was an early feature of Islam, though under some historical dynasties or in some regions the prohibition was only partially or selectively enforced—e.g., under the ʿAbbāsid dynasty (750–1258) it applied only to public buildings. Muhammad is traditionally said to have been born in 570 in Mecca and to have died in 632 in Medina, where he had been forced to emigrate to with his adherents in 622. When the Prophet was forced to immigrate to Medina, the population was “a mixture” of many different tribes (predominantly Arabic and Jewish), who had been fighting for nearly a century, causing “civil strife,” and it was for this reason that the Prophet was invited there, notes F.E. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. He undertook his miraculous Night Journey (Isrāʾ) from Mecca to Jerusalem, where he prayed with Moses, Jesus, and other prophets. The divine call now entered a decisive stage and many important events took place in Madina, which eventually laid a firm foundation for the spread of Islam to the furthest reaches of the globe. In this perspective, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) established a strong state in Medina on the basis of peace, solidarity, and harmony between the Muslims, Jews, Christians, disbelievers, as well as a group of hypocrites. For instance, a Syriac chronicle dating from about 640 mentions a battle between the Romans and “the Arabs of Muhammad,” and an Armenian history composed about 660 describes Muhammad as a merchant who preached to the Arabs and thereby triggered the Islamic conquests.