housing breeding feeding and management of poultry

is obtained. However, humidity must be controlled for it can provide habitat for microorganisms thus, exposing the birds to the threat of disease [18, 33]. This is very vital, because heat stress in birds can be hastened when they are exposed to direct solar radiation. 4. Daghir [2] reported that airflow is increased by 5–10% compared to exterior shutter fan. Our readership spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and students, as well as business professionals. Factors such as wind speed, wind direction and topography are major determinants for consideration in defining the optimal house spacing. Therefore, longer pen house could be strenuous to maintain especially when the activities are carried out manually. We are a community of more than 103,000 authors and editors from 3,291 institutions spanning 160 countries, including Nobel Prize winners and some of the world’s most-cited researchers. where, A, area of the building surface (m2); R, insulation value of the wall material (m2C/W); To, temperature outside (°C); Ti, temperature inside (°C). Heat stress in poultry production had resulted in under-nutrition, stunted growth, reduction in egg production and size, laying of premature eggs and even death [7, 8, 9, 10, 11]. Subsequently, increase in lighting periods and light intensity may cause tiredness, cannibalism, immune responses, leg abnormalities and even death [41, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47]. The total heat produced (sensible and latent) in commercial broiler is 7.9 W/kg while broiler, pullets and broiler breeders is 5.1 W/kg [2, 64]. However, it is prone to the invasion of insect, rodents, birds and other small predators that can disturb the welfare, productivity and performance of … For easy control and distribution of air within the poultry house, the exhaust fan must develop a static pressure of about 12–25 Pa [2]. Lighting at early age in birds have little or no effect on hormonal system, it merely aids birds’ activeness including feed intake, growth, and physical and physiological activities [15, 41, 42]. Just like mammals, the avian species have the ability to regulate their body temperatures by losing or generating heat in response to environmental temperature. It has bigger shutters, which allows for more air movement. Fresh air enters through the air inlet pipes at a velocity of 3.5–6 m/s, however this velocity is quickly dropped to about 1 m/s depending on the size and type of the house. It is also best suited for narrow house with not more than 12 m width [2]. Vices like egg eating, pecking is minimal. Extreme weather conditions in the tropical regions of the world have proven generally detrimental to livestock production and is particularly of interest in chicken because of the latter’s high sensitivity to temperature change [3, 4, 5, 6]. This is problematic in high humid environments where poultry farmers employ evaporation cooling as the primary method of air-temperature reduction during the hot periods of the year [2]. Nipple drinkers to provide cleaner water, reduce water spillage and labour for drinker cleaning has replaced the conventional open water system. can be applied easily and accurately. Layout should not allow visitors or outside vehicles near the sheds. Table 2 shows the recommended air speed required for rearing various classes of poultry birds [2]. Daghir [19] reported that a temperature range of 18–22°C is required for growing broilers. The fertility in poultry to large extent depends on genetics and selection of bird as an inherent character, but it is equally affected by better management than inheritance. On the other hand, Ti is best assumed as 27°C to ensure comfort for birds. When rearing pullets to be used as commercial egg laying or meat type breeding hens, feeding systems are often combined with day-length control during rearing to influence the rate at which birds mature. Also, the branch of trees should be kept at eaves level to prevent obstruction of airflow across the house [2]. It is important we understand the effect of internal climatic conditions of the poultry house on the birds, how the birds respond to them, and their implications on heat management for poultry production. Fresh litter materials spread on the floor. However, the exterior shutter restricts airflow as air spins off its blades on contact. Housing and Environmental Management of Poultry Michael J. Darre, Ph.D., P.A.S. Unlike the inlet ventilation system where the adequate air velocity is propelled by circulation fan, the required average air velocity within tunnel house is calculated by the expression below [2]. Remove any unthrifty pullets. The east-west orientation of a poultry house may reduce the benefit of prevailing winds blowing from east or west. The height of the shed is raised by 6-7 feet using concrete pillars. The value of R will be the overall sum of the insulation value of the wall section. Inlet ventilation system uniformly distributes exhaust fans and air inlets across the house whereas, tunnel ventilation exhaust fans are located at one end and inlet pipes at the other end. Poultry house should be located away from residential and industrial area. This system involves rearing of poultry on raised wire netting floor in smaller compartments, called cages, either fitted with stands on floor of house or hanged from the roof. Increasing the volume and velocity of air moving over birds enhances heat loss in birds due to convection, removal of heat trapped within the poultry house, and reduction of the effect of high humidity on evaporative cooling [2]. 5. Introduction of ridge opening can aid ventilation through stack effect in the poultry house. However, dead spot can be noticed when the fan is installed on the sidewalls as the width of the houses increase. The information will provide guidance on parameters for the open poultry house architectural design that will alleviate heat stress to ensure optimum poultry production in the tropics. Studies show that when the volume and velocity of air is increased heat loss is enhanced in birds through convection. (It is a condition, in which laying birds in cages develop lameness. These are feed, water, fresh air, light, darkness, proper thermal environment, protection (from the elements, predators, injury and theft) and proper space. This kind of ventilation requires proper ceiling insulation and it best suitable for hot climate areas. Auto-operated feeding trolleys and egg collection belts can also be used in this rearing system. Furthermore, the design must factor in the activities and services rendered by poultry farmers and professionals within the building. However, panting can lead to dehydration and respiratory alkalosis because of inadequate water supply and drop in blood pH due to excessive ejection of carbon dioxide [21]. Broilers can also be reared on cages. A major issue is maintaining a supply of fertile eggs. Adequate setback between buildings is required to prevent inadequate airflow and circulation [2, 61]. It has been recommended that tunnel ventilated system should be used in hot weather because cool weather reduce the air exchange rate. However, this can be hindered by high humidity. The limitation of attaining adequate internal environmental conditions required for optimum birds’ performance under extreme weather conditions has led to the use of the mechanically ventilated housing system. The inter-platform distance is 6-7 feet depending upon the type of the cages used. [25], observed that chicken consumed more water when reared with conventional open water system in an experiment that compared the conventional open water system to nipple drinking. PDF | On Dec 23, 2017, Pragya Bhadauria published Different Types of Poultry Housing System for Tropical Climate | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate

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