The main theme consists of two ideas in the same key of G Minor, both lyrical and cantabile (mm. In respect to sonata forms, Chopin definitely remains in the sphere of classical influences, in the domain of active norms. [Back], .  His conception is difficult to accept because in all of Chopin’s sonatas the recapitulation is always preceded by a extended prolongation of the major dominant; in the Sonata in B Minor such a dominant prolongation occurs no earlier than in mm. If, for instance in the Sonata in C Minor the second segment is a kind of a complementation, in the Trio or in the Piano Concerto in F Minor the first segment acquires the character of an introduction with only the second segment constituting the principal thematic idea. These works constitute a typically romantic effort to express oneself in “new,” more freely shaped, forms. The Allegro de Concert in A Major, Op. The polyphonic transition remains in the key of D Minor (m. 23-28). The recapitulation had, on the one hand, a stabilizing character – through the return of principal thematic ideas and domination of the main key, on the other hand, it continued certain features of the development. The expansiveness of the first theme in this work stems from its rhythmic and dynamic features, not from its harmonic traits. It is doubtful whether Chopin knew Reicha’s theory in the period of composing his Sonata in C Minor. [Back], . 19 (1987): 128-9, 26. 4 2. Reicha further stated that the recapitulation could start with the “seconde idee,” where the first theme then became the basis for further development. Not only Chomiński, but also Opieński (1928-29), and Jachimecki (1957) strongly emphasized the “romanticism” of Chopin’s sonatas, trying to place them between the classical and late-romantic types of the sonata, especially as exemplified by Liszt or Franck. The basic difference lies in the transitions between the themes. Opieński (1929, 161) considers the absence of the main theme in the recapitulation to be the most characteristic element of Chopin’s late sonatas. [Back]. The next three sonatas belong to the late period of Chopin’s compositional output and all the scholars agree that those pieces significantly differ from their predecessors; the differences are noticeable in architectural conceptions, types of dramaturgy, and musical language. The manner in which the internal form of Chopin’s sonata cycles is fashioned determines their division into two groups. A totally different approach to analysis may be found in the works of Halm (1920), Kurth (1920), and Mersmann (1926). The basis for these calculations was provided by the last two sonatas by Chopin. Both sections are in the same key. Already in the Sonata in C Minor Chopin revealed his ability to derive themes from basic motivic cells. While Reicha drew his examples mostly from the music of Haydn and Mozart, the Majority of models in the theory of A. The tri-partite construction established by Marx, became a foundation for the “science” of musical forms later on. The recapitulation, with the predominance of the second theme, introduces a certain equilibrium of two emotional qualities into this pattern. 1-8 and mm. While classifying Reicha in the comical category of “shrivelled bottoms” [suszone pupki], Chopin simultaneously stated that “one can learn from their works.” See: Bronisław E. Sydow, ed., Korespondencja Fryderyka Chopina [Correspondence of F.Ch. Only towards the end does the main key return with its parallel Major variant, G Major. Full stability was only reached in the final part of the recapitulation or the coda (e.g., in the Trio). Protopopov, “Nowa interpretacja,” 27. It is also difficult to ascertain what in his style stems from an intuitive acceptance of tradition and what stems from a creative transformation of this tradition, or is even an original compositional gesture. [Back], . Here, Chopin repeats a gesture from the exposition. One could say that in structuring the first theme Chopin returns to a formal conception from the first period of his creative output (the main theme consisting of two ideas in the same key; the homogeneity of expression). The reasons for this stylistic transformation are, on the one hand, internal-musical and linked to the domain of compositional invention; on the other, they belong in the ideological atmosphere of Chopin’s times and milieu. Dahlhaus, “Der rhetorische Formbegriff.” [Back], . Nonetheless, even in these works one may distinguish diverse formal solutions. Nonetheless, a different model of the sonata allegro becomes stabilized in these works; this model is defined by such features as: proportions between components of the form (exposition, development, recapitulation), thematic dualism, the particular character of the second theme, the tri-partite character of the exposition, the beginning of the recapitulation from second-theme material, the return to the first theme at the end of the recapitulation, the tonal relationships in the exposition and the recapitulation, the motivic unity of the themes in the first movement and, possibly, in the whole cycle. It is known that Chopin tried to avoid ready-made solutions and that he was not forced to follow them by Elsner..  In every style and in every epoch, to continue Meyer’s thought, there exists a certain repertoire of universally applicable means and a certain, limited number of rules which define a given style. Chopin’s creative awareness, despite his attachment to tradition, was shaped by romantic tendencies that inspired a novel way of thinking and stimulated the emergence of individual solutions and concepts. The research into the presence of sonata forms in Chopin’s music (Niecks 1890, Huneker 1900, Leichtentritt 1921-22, Opieński 1928-29, Chomiński 1960) shows a clear and pronounced dependency upon the theoretical paradigms of the sonata-form that prevailed during that period. The arpeggiated transition, bringing in at first a shift to the key of A-flat Major, ends with a return of the key of G Minor and a suspension of motion on the major dominant—that is with a way of introducting a new theme that was characteristic for Chopin. 4 was written by Frédéric Chopin in 1828 (probably begun around July). Opieński, “Sonaty Chopina,” 154; Chomiński, Sonaty Chopina, 61-80. 19 (1987: 233-234. The third theme, however, recurs in the main key of G Minor.  It was written during Chopin's time as a student with Józef Elsner, to whom the sonata is dedicated. Andrzej Chodkowski also states that the construction of the sonata-allegro form in the early works of Chopin (i.e., the Sonata in C Minor and the Trio in G Minor) was the result of a fully purposeful compositional design; this approach allows one to interpret these works as much more than just examples of an unskillful application of the sonata form model. Włodzimierz Protopopov, “Nowa interpretacja klasycznych form muzycznych w utworach Chopina” [New interpretation of classical musical forms in the works by Chopin], Rocznik Chopinowski, vol.  Chomiński does not consider Chopin’s departures from the academic definition of the sonata-allegro form to be “errors;” rather, he uses a dualistic conception of the sonata-allegro form based on thematic conflict as his point of reference. The differences in presenting expositions and the ways of treating final movements could be seen as proofs of an evolutionary theory. Chomiński, Sonaty Chopina, 276.  The second theme appears in the exposition in the key of the parallel major; this theme appears in the recapitulation in the key of the major tonic. [Back], . Elements of the first subject are not introduced until the end of the recapitulation. We are located on the University Park Campus of the University of Southern California. 4, 1163, note. A similar polarization appears in the development. This theme appears in the recapitulation in the key of G Major; thus Chopin completely reverses the relationship between exposition and recapitulation. This aspect of Chopin’s style was seen as heralding the late romantic sonatas of Franck and Liszt. First of all, Chopin abandons the principle of sharply-delineated contrasts by creating a sonata-allegro form that still includes many themes, yet is more homogeneous in its expressive aspects. In this period, the expanding harmonic means contributed to the articulation of form by causing a greater “openness” of the first theme. It is rare that music that has existed in the world repertoire for 150 years can still elicit such extremely varied theoretic interpretations. At first approach, this structure seems to be very convoluted and very distant from theoretical premises. Simultaneously, in both Concerti and the Trio it is significant that a lyrical cantilena is introduced within the framework of the main theme. In addition to the motive based on seconds which connects all the movements in this sonata cycle, one may also emphasize the integrative role of the rhythmic motive (Beethoven’s “motive of fate”) in the first and the last movements of the Sonata.