Changes to more extensive agricultural practices were shown to reduce buzzard populations in western France where reduction of “hedgerows, woodlots and grasslands areas" caused a decline of buzzards and in Hampshire, England where more extensive grazing by free-range cattle and horses led to declines of buzzards, probably largely due to the seeming reduction of small mammal populations there.  Further north though its absent from either side of the northern Caspian Sea, the common buzzard is found in much of western Russia (though exclusively as a breeder) including all of the Central Federal District and the Volga Federal District, all but the northernmost parts of the Northwestern and Ural Federal Districts and nearly the southern half of the Siberian Federal District, its farthest easterly occurrence as a breeder.  One study showed that this variation may actually be the result of diminished single-locus genetic diversity. Buzzard Portrait (Buteo buteo) Close portrait of Buzzard Portrait (Buteo buteo) with a small feather stuck to his beak.  The composition of habitat and its relation to human disturbance were important variables for the dark and light phenotypes but were less important to intermediate individuals. Markings of pale vulpinus as seen in flight are similar to rufous morph (such as paler wing markings) but more greyish both on wings and body. Several wood mice (Apodemus ssp.)  Known owl prey has included 419 g (14.8 oz) barn owls (Tyto alba), 92 g (3.2 oz) European scops owls (Otus scops), 475 g (16.8 oz) tawny owls (Strix alucco), 169 g (6.0 oz) little owls (Athene noctua), 138 g (4.9 oz) boreal owls (Aegolius funereus), 286 g (10.1 oz) long-eared owls (Asio otus) and 355 g (12.5 oz) short-eared owls (Asio flammeus). In comparison, the mountain buzzard, which is more similar in size to the steppe buzzard and slightly larger than the forest buzzard, is usually duller brown above than a steppe buzzard and is more whitish below with distinctive heavy brown blotches from breasts to the belly, flanks and wing linings while juvenile mountain buzzard is buffy below with smaller and streakier markings. Kruckenhauser, L., Haring, E., Pinsker, W., Riesing, M. J., Winkler, H., Wink, M., & Gamauf, A. , The common buzzard is a generalist predator which hunts a wide variety of prey given the opportunity. (1996). The most often recorded avian prey and 2nd and 3rd most frequent prey species (after only field voles) in Glen Urquhart, were 23.9 g (0.84 oz) chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs) and 18.4 g (0.65 oz) meadow pipits (Anthus pratensis), with the buzzards taking 195 fledglings of these species against only 90 adults. (editors). However, displays are not uncommon throughout year in resident pairs, especially by males, and can elicit similar displays by neighbors.  Similarly, urbanization seems to negatively affect buzzards, this species being generally less adaptable to urban areas than their New World counterparts, the red-tailed hawk. Bensusan, K. J., Garcia, E. F., & Cortes, J. E. (2007). There are, however, highly significant differences in clutch size between British study areas. Some 16 subspecies have been described in the past and up to 11 are often considered valid, although some authorities accept as few as seven.  In Belarus, voles, including Microtus species and 18.4 g (0.65 oz) bank voles (Myodes glareolus), accounted for 34.8% of the biomass on average in 1065 prey items from different study areas over 4 years. Further down in migration, autumn numbers of up to 98,000 have been recorded in passage in Djibouti.  In last 50 years, it was recorded that nominate buzzards are typically migrating shorter distances and wintering further north, possibly in response to climate change, resulting in relatively smaller numbers of them at migration sites.  Often the youngest nestling dies from starvation, especially in broods of three or more.  In eastern Europe and much of the Asian range of common buzzards, the long-legged buzzard (Buteo rufinus) may live alongside the common species. Keep in touch with the nature you love without having to leave the house.  The mean life expectancy was estimated at 6.3 years in the late 1950s, but this was at a time of high persecution when humans were causing 50–80% of buzzard deaths. Compared to the nominate race, rufous vulpinus show a patterning not dissimilar but generally far more rufous-toned on head, the fringes to mantle wing coverts and, especially, on the tail and the underside. The southern population migrates earlier than intermediate to dark buzzards, in both adults and juveniles.  The genus Buteo was introduced by the French naturalist Bernard Germain de Lacépède in 1799 by tautonymy with the specific name of this species. Van Nieuwenhuyse, D., Genot, J. C., & Johnson, D. H.  Despite their relatively large size, tawny owls are known to avoid buzzards as there are several records of them preying upon the owls. Polymorphism has been linked with migratory behaviour. Zuberogoitia, I., Martínez, J. E., Martínez, J. The eagle-owl, despite often taking small mammals that broadly overlap with those selected by buzzards, is considered a "super-predator" that is a major threat to nearly all co-existing raptorial birds, capably destroying whole broods of other raptorial birds and dispatching adult raptors even as large as eagles. European hare (Lepus europaeus) were the fourth most important prey species in central Poland and the third most significant prey species in Stavropol Krai, Russia. Images © protected Woodland Trust.  In the Teno massif of the Canary Islands, the average density was estimated as 23 pairs per 100 km2 (39 sq mi), similar to that of a middling continental population. The only sparing factor is the temporal difference (the buzzard nesting later in the year than the eagle-owl) and buzzards may locally be able to avoid nesting near an active eagle-owl family. Instead of white spots they have white bars that form a ladder-like pattern up the feather’s length. Birds with more conspicuous or open nesting areas or habits are more likely to have fledglings or nestlings attacked, such as water birds, while those with more secluded or inaccessible nests, such as pigeons/doves and woodpeckers, adults are more likely to be hunted. More northerly and westerly buzzard usually bear larger clutches, which average nearer 3, than those further east and south. In no part of the range do steppe buzzards use the same summering and wintering grounds. A study from Great Britain indicated that hovering does not seem to increase hunting success. In southern Scotland, rabbits constituted 40.8% of remains at nests and 21.6% of pellet contents, while lagomorphs (mainly rabbits but also some young hares) were present in 99% of remains in Moray, Scotland.  Similarly, tree squirrels are readily taken but rarely important in the foods of buzzards in Europe, as buzzards apparently prefer to avoid taking prey from trees nor do they possess the agility typically necessary to capture significant quantities of tree squirrels. Chakarov, N., Boerner, M., & Krüger, O.  Common buzzards may hunt nearly 80 species passerines and nearly all available gamebirds.  The buzzard was found to be the most vulnerable raptor to power-line collision fatalities in Spain probably as it is one of the most common largish birds, and together with the common raven, it accounted for nearly a third of recorded electrocutions. , Birds were the primary food for common buzzards in the Italian Alps, where they made up 46% of the diet against mammal which accounted for 29% in 146 prey items. Northern goshawks have been known to have preyed upon buzzards in a few cases. Observations on the Steppe Buzzard in the Transvaal. Kenward, R. E., Hall, D. G., Walls, S. S., & Hodder, K. H. (2001). Breeding success was lower farther from significant stands of trees in the Midlands and most nesting failures that could be determined occurred in the incubation stage, possibly in correlation with predation of eggs by corvids. (2008).  In a German study, the range was 0.8 to 1.8 km2 (0.31 to 0.69 sq mi) with an average of 1.26 km2 (0.49 sq mi). In the nominate race, egg size is 49.8–63.8 mm (1.96–2.51 in) in height by 39.1–48.2 mm (1.54–1.90 in) in diameter with an average of 55 mm × 44 mm (2.2 in × 1.7 in) in 600 eggs. (2012). More typically, common buzzards are victims of nest parasitism to owls and falcons, as neither of these other kinds of raptorial birds builds their own nests, but these may regularly take up occupancy on already abandoned or alternate nests rather than ones the buzzards are actively using.  In Murcia part of Spain contrasted with Biscay to the north, higher levels of interspecific competition from booted eagles and northern goshawks did not appear to negatively affect breeding success due to more ample prey populations (rabbits again) in Murcia than in Biscay.